In vehicular communication systems , vehicle-to-everything communication V2X , consists of three main components: vehicle to vehicle communication V2V , vehicle to infrastructure communication V2I and vehicle to pedestrian communications V2P. V2X is the first step to autonomous driving and connected road infrastructure. IoT devices can be used to monitor and control the mechanical, electrical and electronic systems used in various types of buildings e. In this context, three main areas are being covered in literature: .
Also known as IIoT, industrial IoT devices acquire and analyze data from connected equipment, OT operational technology, locations and people. The IoT can realize the seamless integration of various manufacturing devices equipped with sensing, identification, processing, communication, actuation, and networking capabilities. Based on such a highly integrated smart cyber-physical space, it opens the door to create whole new business and market opportunities for manufacturing.
Digital control systems to automate process controls, operator tools and service information systems to optimize plant safety and security are within the purview of the IoT. Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization, health and safety management, and other functions are provided by a large number of networked sensors. Industrial IoT IIoT in manufacturing could generate so much business value that it will eventually lead to the Fourth Industrial Revolution , also referred to as Industry 4.
Industrial big data analytics will play a vital role in manufacturing asset predictive maintenance, although that is not the only capability of industrial big data. Cyber-physical systems can be designed by following the 5C connection, conversion, cyber, cognition, configuration architecture,  and it will transform the collected data into actionable information, and eventually interfere with the physical assets to optimize processes.
However, without sensing and intelligent analytics, it can be only determined by experience when the band saw belt will actually break. The developed prognostics system will be able to recognize and monitor the degradation of band saw belts even if the condition is changing, advising users when is the best time to replace the belt.
This will significantly improve user experience and operator safety and ultimately save on costs. There are numerous IoT applications in farming  such as collecting data on temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest infestation, and soil content. This data can be used to automate farming techniques, take informed decisions to improve quality and quantity, minimize risk and waste, and reduce effort required to manage crops.
For example, farmers can now monitor soil temperature and moisture from afar, and even apply IoT-acquired data to precision fertilization programs. In August , Toyota Tsusho began a partnership with Microsoft to create fish farming tools using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies related to water management.
Developed in part by researchers from Kindai University , the water pump mechanisms use artificial intelligence to count the number of fish on a conveyor belt , analyze the number of fish, and deduce the effectiveness of water flow from the data the fish provide. Monitoring and controlling operations of sustainable urban and rural infrastructures like bridges, railway tracks and on- and offshore wind-farms is a key application of the IoT.
The IoT can benefit the construction industry by cost saving, time reduction, better quality workday, paperless workflow and increase in productivity. It can help in taking faster decisions and save money with Real-Time Data Analytics. It can also be used for scheduling repair and maintenance activities in an efficient manner, by coordinating tasks between different service providers and users of these facilities.
Usage of IoT devices for monitoring and operating infrastructure is likely to improve incident management and emergency response coordination, and quality of service , up-times and reduce costs of operation in all infrastructure related areas.
There are several planned or ongoing large-scale deployments of the IoT, to enable better management of cities and systems. Much of the city is planned to be wired and automated, with little or no human intervention. Another application is a currently undergoing project in Santander , Spain. For this deployment, two approaches have been adopted. This city of , inhabitants has already seen 18, downloads of its city smartphone app. The app is connected to 10, sensors that enable services like parking search, environmental monitoring, digital city agenda, and more.
City context information is used in this deployment so as to benefit merchants through a spark deals mechanism based on city behavior that aims at maximizing the impact of each notification.
Other examples of large-scale deployments underway include the Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City;  work on improving air and water quality, reducing noise pollution, and increasing transportation efficiency in San Jose, California;  and smart traffic management in western Singapore. The network was designed and engineered by Fluidmesh Networks, a Chicago-based company developing wireless networks for critical applications.
With the wireless network in place, NY Waterway is able to take control of its fleet and passengers in a way that was not previously possible. New applications can include security, energy and fleet management, digital signage, public Wi-Fi, paperless ticketing and others. Significant numbers of energy-consuming devices e. Environmental monitoring applications of the IoT typically use sensors to assist in environmental protection  by monitoring air or water quality ,  atmospheric or soil conditions ,  and can even include areas like monitoring the movements of wildlife and their habitats.
IoT devices in this application typically span a large geographic area and can also be mobile. Another example of integrating the IoT is Living Lab which integrates and combines research and innovation process, establishing within a public-private-people-partnership. For companies to implement and develop IoT services for smart cities, they need to have incentives.
The governments play key roles in smart cities projects as changes in policies will help cities to implement the IoT which provides effectiveness, efficiency, and accuracy of the resources that are being used. For instance, the government provides tax incentives and cheap rent, improves public transports, and offers an environment where start-up companies, creative industries, and multinationals may co-create, share common infrastructure and labor markets, and take advantages of locally embedded technologies, production process, and transaction costs.
The IoT's major significant trend in recent years is the explosive growth of devices connected and controlled by the Internet. The IoT creates opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.
Ambient intelligence and autonomous control are not part of the original concept of the Internet of things. Ambient intelligence and autonomous control do not necessarily require Internet structures, either. However, there is a shift in research by companies such as Intel to integrate the concepts of the IoT and autonomous control, with initial outcomes towards this direction considering objects as the driving force for autonomous IoT. By reinforcement learning approach, a learning agent can sense the environment's state e. For example, an autonomous vehicle's camera needs to make real-time obstacle detection to avoid an accident.
This fast decision making would not be possible through transferring data from the vehicle to cloud instances and return the predictions back to the vehicle. Instead, all the operation should be performed locally in the vehicle. Integrating advanced machine learning algorithms including deep learning into IoT devices is an active research area to make smart objects closer to reality.
Moreover, it is possible to get the most value out of IoT deployments through analyzing IoT data, extracting hidden information, and predicting control decisions. A wide variety of machine learning techniques have been used in IoT domain ranging from traditional methods such as regression , support vector machine , and random forest to advanced ones such as convolutional neural networks , LSTM , and variational autoencoder. In the future, the Internet of Things may be a non-deterministic and open network in which auto-organized or intelligent entities web services , SOA components and virtual objects avatars will be interoperable and able to act independently pursuing their own objectives or shared ones depending on the context, circumstances or environments.
Autonomous behavior through the collection and reasoning of context information as well as the object's ability to detect changes in the environment faults affecting sensors and introduce suitable mitigation measures constitutes a major research trend,  clearly needed to provide credibility to the IoT technology. Modern IoT products and solutions in the marketplace use a variety of different technologies to support such context-aware automation, but more sophisticated forms of intelligence are requested to permit sensor units and intelligent cyber-physical systems to be deployed in real environments.
It includes various database systems that store sensor data, such as time series databases or asset stores using backend data storage systems e. Cassandra, Postgres. Building on the Internet of things, the web of things is an architecture for the application layer of the Internet of things looking at the convergence of data from IoT devices into Web applications to create innovative use-cases.
In order to program and control the flow of information in the Internet of things, a predicted architectural direction is being called BPM Everywhere which is a blending of traditional process management with process mining and special capabilities to automate the control of large numbers of coordinated devices. The Internet of things requires huge scalability in the network space to handle the surge of devices. With billions of devices  being added to the Internet space, IPv6 will play a major role in handling the network layer scalability.
Fog computing is a viable alternative to prevent such large burst of data flow through Internet. Limited processing power is a key attribute of IoT devices as their purpose is to supply data about physical objects while remaining autonomous. Heavy processing requirements use more battery power harming IoT's ability to operate. Scalability is easy because IoT devices simply supply data through the internet to a server with sufficient processing power. In semi-open or closed loops i. At the overall stage full open loop it will likely be seen as a chaotic environment since systems always have finality.
As a practical approach, not all elements in the Internet of things run in a global, public space. Subsystems are often implemented to mitigate the risks of privacy, control and reliability. For example, domestic robotics domotics running inside a smart home might only share data within and be available via a local network. The Internet of things would encode 50 to trillion objects, and be able to follow the movement of those objects. Human beings in surveyed urban environments are each surrounded by to trackable objects.
This number is expected to grow to million devices by In the Internet of things, the precise geographic location of a thing—and also the precise geographic dimensions of a thing—will be critical. Note that some things in the Internet of things will be sensors, and sensor location is usually important. However, the challenges that remain include the constraints of variable spatial scales, the need to handle massive amounts of data, and an indexing for fast search and neighbor operations. In the Internet of things, if things are able to take actions on their own initiative, this human-centric mediation role is eliminated.
Thus, the time-space context that we as humans take for granted must be given a central role in this information ecosystem. Just as standards play a key role in the Internet and the Web, geospatial standards will play a key role in the Internet of things. Many IoT devices have a potential to take a piece of this market. Others are turning to the concept of predictive interaction of devices, "where collected data is used to predict and trigger actions on the specific devices" while making them work together.
There are many technologies that enable the IoT. Crucial to the field is the network used to communicate between devices of an IoT installation, a role that several wireless or wired technologies may fulfill:   . The objects themselves do not converse, but they may now be referred to by other agents, such as powerful centralized servers acting for their human owners. Due to the limited address space of IPv4 which allows for 4.
To a large extent, the future of the Internet of things will not be possible without the support of IPv6; and consequently, the global adoption of IPv6 in the coming years will be critical for the successful development of the IoT in the future. This is a list of technical standards for the IoT, most of which are open standards , and the standards organizations that aspire to successfully setting them. Some scholars and activists argue that the IoT can be used to create new models of civic engagement if device networks can be open to user control and inter-operable platforms.
Philip N. Howard , a professor and author, writes that political life in both democracies and authoritarian regimes will be shaped by the way the IoT will be used for civic engagement. For that to happen, he argues that any connected device should be able to divulge a list of the "ultimate beneficiaries" of its sensor data and that individual citizens should be able to add new organizations to the beneficiary list.
In addition, he argues that civil society groups need to start developing their IoT strategy for making use of data and engaging with the public. One of the key drivers of the IoT is data. For this purpose, companies working on the IoT collect data from multiple sources and store it in their cloud network for further processing. This leaves the door wide open for privacy and security dangers and single point vulnerability of multiple systems.
Though still in their infancy, regulations and governance regarding these issues of privacy, security, and data ownership continue to develop. However, the FTC stopped at just making recommendations for now. According to an FTC analysis, the existing framework, consisting of the FTC Act , the Fair Credit Reporting Act , and the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act , along with developing consumer education and business guidance, participation in multi-stakeholder efforts and advocacy to other agencies at the federal, state and local level, is sufficient to protect consumer rights.
A resolution passed by the Senate in March , is already being considered by the Congress. Several standards for the IoT industry are actually being established relating to automobiles because most concerns arising from use of connected cars apply to healthcare devices as well. In fact, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA is preparing cybersecurity guidelines and a database of best practices to make automotive computer systems more secure. A recent report from the World Bank examines the challenges and opportunities in government adoption of IoT.
The IoT suffers from platform fragmentation and lack of technical standards        [ excessive citations ] a situation where the variety of IoT devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently between different inconsistent technology ecosystems hard. The IoT's amorphous computing nature is also a problem for security, since patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-price devices.
Howard , a professor and author, writes that the Internet of things offers immense potential for empowering citizens, making government transparent, and broadening information access. Howard cautions, however, that privacy threats are enormous, as is the potential for social control and political manipulation. Concerns about privacy have led many to consider the possibility that big data infrastructures such as the Internet of things and data mining are inherently incompatible with privacy. Writer Adam Greenfield claims that IoT technologies are not only an invasion of public space but are also being used to perpetuate normative behavior, citing an instance of billboards with hidden cameras that tracked the demographics of passersby who stopped to read the advertisement.
The Internet of Things Council compared the increased prevalence of digital surveillance due to the Internet of things to the conceptual panopticon described by Jeremy Bentham in the 18th Century. In Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison Foucault asserts that the panopticon was a central element of the discipline society developed during the Industrial Era. Peter-Paul Verbeek , a professor of philosophy of technology at the University of Twente , Netherlands, writes that technology already influences our moral decision making, which in turn affects human agency, privacy and autonomy.
He cautions against viewing technology merely as a human tool and advocates instead to consider it as an active agent. Justin Brookman, of the Center for Democracy and Technology , expressed concern regarding the impact of the IoT on consumer privacy , saying that "There are some people in the commercial space who say, 'Oh, big data — well, let's collect everything, keep it around forever, we'll pay for somebody to think about security later.
Tim O'Reilly believes that the way companies sell the IoT devices on consumers are misplaced, disputing the notion that the IoT is about gaining efficiency from putting all kinds of devices online and postulating that the "IoT is really about human augmentation. The applications are profoundly different when you have sensors and data driving the decision-making. Actually, it's worse than that. You aren't just going to lose your privacy, you're going to have to watch the very concept of privacy be rewritten under your nose.
The ACLU wrote that "There's simply no way to forecast how these immense powers — disproportionately accumulating in the hands of corporations seeking financial advantage and governments craving ever more control — will be used. Chances are big data and the Internet of things will make it harder for us to control our own lives, as we grow increasingly transparent to powerful corporations and government institutions that are becoming more opaque to us. In response to rising concerns about privacy and smart technology , in the British Government stated it would follow formal Privacy by Design principles when implementing their smart metering program.
The program would lead to replacement of traditional power meters with smart power meters, which could track and manage energy usage more accurately. The Dutch program later revised and passed in A challenge for producers of IoT applications is to clean , process and interpret the vast amount of data which is gathered by the sensors.
There is a solution proposed for the analytics of the information referred to as Wireless Sensor Networks. Another challenge is the storage of this bulk data. Depending on the application, there could be high data acquisition requirements, which in turn lead to high storage requirements. Security is the biggest concern in adopting Internet of things technology,  with concerns that rapid development is happenening without appropriate consideration of the profound security challenges involved  and the regulatory changes that might be necessary.
Most of the technical security concerns are similar to those of conventional servers, workstations and smartphones,  and include weak authentication, forgetting to change default credentials, unencrypted messages sent between devices, SQL injections and poor handling of security updates. These constraints often make them unable to directly use basic security measures such as implementing firewalls or using strong cryptosystems to encrypt their communications with other devices  - and the low price and consumer focus of many devices makes a robust security patching system uncommon.
Internet of things devices also have access to new areas of data, and can often control physical devices,  so that even by it was possible to say that many Internet-connected appliances could already "spy on people in their own homes" including televisions, kitchen appliances,  cameras, and thermostats. In some cases, vehicle computer systems are Internet-connected, allowing them to be exploited remotely. Later hackers demonstrated remote control of insulin pumps  and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.
Poorly secured Internet-accessible IoT devices can also be subverted to attack others. In , a distributed denial of service attack powered by Internet of things devices running the Mirai malware took down a DNS provider and major web sites. The U.
National Intelligence Council in an unclassified report maintains that it would be hard to deny "access to networks of sensors and remotely-controlled objects by enemies of the United States, criminals, and mischief makers An open market for aggregated sensor data could serve the interests of commerce and security no less than it helps criminals and spies identify vulnerable targets. Thus, massively parallel sensor fusion may undermine social cohesion, if it proves to be fundamentally incompatible with Fourth-Amendment guarantees against unreasonable search.
On 31 January , the Washington Post wrote an article regarding the security and ethical challenges that can occur with IoT doorbells and cameras: "Last month, Ring got caught allowing its team in Ukraine to view and annotate certain user videos; the company says it only looks at publicly shared videos and those from Ring owners who provide consent. There have been a range of responses to concerns over security.
Its founding board is made from technology providers and telecommunications companies. In addition, large IT companies are continuously developing innovative solutions to ensure the security for IoT devices. Governmental regulation is argued by some to be necessary to secure IoT devices and the wider Internet — as market incentives to secure IoT devices is insufficient. IoT systems are typically controlled by event-driven smart apps that take as input either sensed data, user inputs, or other external triggers from the Internet and command one or more actuators towards providing different forms of automation.
Examples of actuators include smart locks, smart power outlets, and door controls. Popular control platforms on which third-party developers can build smart apps that interact wirelessly with these sensors and actuators include Samsung's SmartThings,  Apple's HomeKit,  and Amazon's Alexa,  among others.
Recently, researchers from the University of California Riverside have proposed IotSan, a novel practical system that uses model checking as a building block to reveal "interaction-level" flaws by identifying events that can lead the system to unsafe states. From 76 manually configured systems, IotSan detects vulnerabilities i. Given widespread recognition of the evolving nature of the design and management of the Internet of things, sustainable and secure deployment of IoT solutions must design for "anarchic scalability. This hard anarchic scalability thus provides a pathway forward to fully realize the potential of Internet-of-things solutions by selectively constraining physical systems to allow for all management regimes without risking physical failure.
Brown University computer scientist Michael Littman has argued that successful execution of the Internet of things requires consideration of the interface's usability as well as the technology itself.
These interfaces need to be not only more user-friendly but also better integrated: "If users need to learn different interfaces for their vacuums, their locks, their sprinklers, their lights, and their coffeemakers, it's tough to say that their lives have been made any easier. A concern regarding Internet-of-things technologies pertains to the environmental impacts of the manufacture, use, and eventual disposal of all these semiconductor-rich devices. This makes them extremely difficult to properly recycle. Electronic components are often incinerated or placed in regular landfills.
Furthermore, the human and environmental cost of mining the rare-earth metals that are integral to modern electronic components continues to grow. This leads to societal questions concerning the environmental impacts of IoT devices over its lifetime. The Electronic Frontier Foundation has raised concerns that companies can use the technologies necessary to support connected devices to intentionally disable or " brick " their customers' devices via a remote software update or by disabling a service necessary to the operation of the device.
In one example, home automation devices sold with the promise of a "Lifetime Subscription" were rendered useless after Nest Labs acquired Revolv and made the decision to shut down the central servers the Revolv devices had used to operate. Owners should be free to point their devices to a different server or collaborate on improved software.
This forces tinkerers who want to keep using their own equipment into a legal grey area. EFF thinks buyers should refuse electronics and software that prioritize the manufacturer's wishes above their own. Kevin Lonergan at Information Age, a business-technology magazine, has referred to the terms surrounding the IoT as a "terminology zoo". Despite a shared belief in the potential of the IoT, industry leaders and consumers are facing barriers to adopt IoT technology more widely.
Mike Farley argued in Forbes that while IoT solutions appeal to early adopters , they either lack interoperability or a clear use case for end-users. According to a recent study by Noura Aleisa and Karen Renaud at the University of Glasgow, "the Internet of things' potential for major privacy invasion is a concern"  with much of research "disproportionally focused on the security concerns of IoT. Louis Basenese, investment director at Wall Street Daily, has criticized the industry's lack of attention to security issues:. Consumers need to have ultimate control over collected data, including the option to delete it if they choose Without privacy assurances, wide-scale consumer adoption simply won't happen.
In a post- Snowden world of global surveillance disclosures , consumers take a more active interest in protecting their privacy and demand IoT devices to be screened for potential security vulnerabilities and privacy violations before purchasing them. According to the Accenture Digital Consumer Survey, in which consumers in 28 countries were polled on their use of consumer technology, security "has moved from being a nagging problem to a top barrier as consumers are now choosing to abandon IoT devices and services over security concerns.
A study issued by Ericsson regarding the adoption of Internet of things among Danish companies identified a "clash between IoT and companies' traditional governance structures, as IoT still presents both uncertainties and a lack of historical precedence. A lack of digital leadership in the age of digital transformation has also stifled innovation and IoT adoption to a degree that many companies, in the face of uncertainty, "were waiting for the market dynamics to play out",  or further action in regards to IoT "was pending competitor moves, customer pull, or regulatory requirements.
Studies on IoT literature and projects show a disproportionate prominence of technology in the IoT projects, which are often driven by technological interventions rather than business model innovation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: V2X. Main article: Industrial Internet of Things. This section needs attention from an expert in Technology. The specific problem is: The information is partially outdated, unclear, and uncited.
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Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Basic Books. Internet of things and big data analytics toward next-generation intelligence PDF. Springer International Publishing. Retrieved 14 October Flexible device management capabilities let you connect any type of device to a powerful IoT data management and analytics platform. Use powerful, innovative edge analytics and robust security capabilities to create customized solutions that easily integrate with your existing enterprise applications.
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